Basic concepts..

Variable :

A variable is an identifier that is used to represent some specified type of information within a designated portion of the program .

A variable is a way of referring to a memory location used in a computer program. This memory location holds values- perhaps numbers or text or more complicated types of data like a payroll record

Local variables :

The variables which are defined inside a function block or inside a compound statement of a function

Global (or) External variables:

The variables that are declared before the main( ) function.


The item whose values cannot be changed during the execution of program.


An operator is a symbol that specifies an operation to be performed on the operands.

Actual parameters:

The parameters are transferred from the calling program(main program) to the called program(function

Formal parameters:

The parameters are transferred into the calling function(main program) from the called program(function

Call by value:

The values of actual parameters into the formal parameters of the function.

Call by reference :

The address of arguments are copied into the parameters inside the function, the address is used to access the actual arguments used in the call.

Type casting:

Type casting is the process of converting the value of an expression to a particular data type.


An array is a group of similar data types stored under a common name

Recursive function:

A function calls itself again and again.

Pointer :

A variable which holds the address of another variable


Preprocessor is the program, that process our source program before the compilation.


The basic runtime entities that has attributes ,behavior and identity.(or) An entity that can store data and ,send and receive messages.


A group of objects that share common properties and relationships.

Data Abstraction:

The act of representing essential features without including the background details or explanations


The process of hiding all the internal details of an objects from the outside world.


The process by which objects of one class acquire the properties of objects of another class (or) new class derived from existing class


The ability to take more than one form. an operation may exhibit different behaviors in different instances.

Dynamic Binding:

The code associated with a given procedure call is not known until the time of the call at run-time.


An Identifier is a name for a variable, type, type member, template, class, function, namespace etc and is usually limited to letters, digits and underscores. Certain words are reserved and cannot be used as identifiers such as new.
The name of variables, function, arrays, classes , etc., created by the programmer.


Manipulators are operators that are used to format the data display

Function overloading:

The same function name to create functions that perform a variety of different tasks.


A constructor is a 'special' member function whose task is to initialize the objects of its class. Its name is the same as the class name.

Copy constructor:

It is used to declare and initialize an object from another object.


It is used to destroy the objects that have been created by a constructor.
(Or) A function that is called to de allocate memory of the objects of the class.

Derived class:

A class that inherits some or all of its members from another class


A special kind of document, that produce basic tools for shapping a final document.

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